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Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics Notes

Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics Notes

Chapter 12 Thermodynamics 

NCERT's Grade 11 Physics notes are invaluable to students. Chapter 12 NCERT notes will help students learn about the laws governing thermal energy. Students learn the concept of thermodynamics and how thermodynamics governs various phenomena at the atomic level. This note aligns with the latest CBSE Physics curriculum for 11th grade. However, students need to clarify the basics before answering these questions. Students can answer questions while solving over 300 practice problems on Vidyakul. These practice questions and practice tests cover 79 concepts in the chapter. Therefore, students need to practice regularly to do well in the exam.


Points to Remember

Some of the points to remember from Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 are as follows:

  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics: According to this law, systems in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature.

  • First law of thermodynamics:  dQ=dU+dW

  • Thermal resistance to conduction: R = L/KA

  • Newton’s law of cooling: dθ/dt = (θ – θ0)

  • Temperature scales: F= 32 +(9/5)C or K = C + 273.16

  • Linear Expansion is L = L0(1+αΔT)

  • Volume Expansion is V = V0(1+yΔT)

  • First law of thermodynamics: ∆Q = ∆U + ∆W

  • Ideal gas equation: pV = nRT

  • Efficiency of the heat engine: η = work done by the engine/heat supplied to it = Q1 − Q2/Q1

  • Relation between Cp and Cv: Cp − Cv = R

Topics and Sub- topics

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the concepts of heat and temperature. Thermodynamics is a macroscopic science. It deals with volumetric systems and does not deal with the molecular structure of matter. Through these NCERT notes, students will learn the difference between mechanics and thermodynamics.

Students can also find videos and explanations on these topics on Vidyakul. Students can also answer questions on these topics and take tests for free. Students must thoroughly study all the important topics of thermodynamics in order to successfully pass the exam.

Now, let us look at the important topics from this chapter:

Sr. No.

Topic Name


Thermal Equilibrium


Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics


Heat, Internal Energy and Work


First Law of Thermodynamics


Specific Heat Capacity


Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State


Thermodynamic Processes


Heat Engines


Refrigerators and Heat Pumps


Second Law of Thermodynamics


Reversible and Irreversible Processes


Carnot Engine

Few Important Questions

  • How many laws of Thermodynamics are there?

Thermodynamics has recognized three fundamental laws, named by an ordinal identification, the first law, the second law, and the third law.

  • What is Entropy?

Entropy is the measure of a system’s thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work.

  • What is ‘thermal energy’?

Thermal energy is a type of power produced by atomic and molecular particle movement within a substance.

Practice Questions

  1. Calculate the coefficient of performance when a refrigerator maintains a temperature of 9 degrees Celsius and the room temperature is said to be 36 degrees.

  2. An electric heater provides heat to a system that is stated to be 1000W. Calculate the increase in the rate of internal energy when the system performs work at a rate of 65 joules per second.

  3. The amount of work done on a system in order to change the state of gas adiabatically from equilibrium A to B is 33.2 J. If the gas is taken from A to B from a method in which the net heat absorbed is 9.35 cal. Calculate the work done by the system. (assume 1 cal=4.19 J)

Know more about the same in Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics Notes pdf.

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Thermodynamics Class 11 Physics Physics Notes Part - 1

Thermodynamics Class 11 Physics Physics Notes Part - 2