Class 12th Chemistry Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen NCERT Notes CBSE 2023
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Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Class 12 Notes

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Class 12 Notes

Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Notes- Pdf Download

Chapter 13 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

The NCERT notes for Grade 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 deals with amines. These notes help students understand the concept of amine in a simple way. It also helps students remember complex structural formulas. Students should seriously prepare for this chapter as it is also very important for many other competitions.

This chapter covers the structure of amines, their classification, nomenclature, preparation of amines, physical properties, chemical reactions and much more. Scroll down to access NCERT notes for Chapter 12 Grade 13 Chemistry as well as Important Topics.


CBSE CLASS 12th CHEMISTRY 13 NOTES


Points to Remember

This chapter highlights the importance of amines that are derivatives of ammonia having a pyramidal structure. Students will learn about several methods of preparing amines and their chemical properties. Here are some important points for students to remember:

  • Amines can be considered as derivatives of ammonia, obtained by replacement of one, two or all the three hydrogen atoms by alkyl and/or aryl groups

  • Gabriel synthesis is used for the preparation of primary amines. Phthalimide on treatment with ethanolic potassium hydroxide forms potassium salt of phthalimide which on heating with alkyl halide followed by alkaline hydrolysis produces the corresponding primary amine.

  • The order of boiling points of isomeric amines is primary > secondary > tertiary.

  • Because of the presence of a lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom of -N˙H˙2 group, amines behave as Lewis bases.

  • All aliphatic amines are more basic than ammonia. In aqueous solution, the order of basic character is (CH3)2NH>CH3NH2>(CH3)3N

  • The free amine can be obtained from the ammonium salt by treatment with a strong base.


Topics and Sub- topics

Students may find it a bit difficult to understand the problems, but as they work through the problems, it becomes easier to master the topic and score well on the final exam. At Vidyakul, we provide notes to Chapter 13 Chemistry problems based on an updated outline. Moreover, all notes are provided by Vidyakul for free to get high scores in exams. 

Students can find a list of important topics for chapter 13 as mentioned below:

Students can find the list of important topics of chapter 13 Amines as mentioned below:

Sr. No.

Topic Name

Description

1.

General Introduction of Amines

Amines are derived from ammonia acquired by replacing hydrogen atoms in aryl or with alkyl groups. When one hydrogen atom is replaced it gives rise to a primary amine. The structure of secondary amines is given by R2NH or R-NHR′ whereas tertiary amines are characterized by RNR′R′′ or R2NR′ or R3N. If the aryl or alkyl group of tertiary and secondary amines are same they are called simple amines, but if they are attached to different groups they are called mixed amines. Amines have one unshared electron pair on the nitrogen atom, therefore, they behave as Lewis bases. They are formed from halides, amides, nitro compounds or imides

2.

Structure of Amines

3.

Classification of Amines

4.

Nomenclature of Amines

5.

Methods of Preparation of Amines

Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons and so is trivalent with a lone pair. As per VSEPR theory, nitrogen present in amines is sp3 hybridized and due to the presence of lone a pair, it is pyramidal instead of tetrahedral shape which is a general structure for most sp3 hybridized molecules. Each of the three sp3 hybridized orbitals of nitrogen overlap with orbitals of hydrogen or carbon depending upon the configuration of amines. Due to the presence of a lone pair, the C-N-H angle in amines is less than 109 degrees which is a characteristic angle of tetrahedral geometry. The angle of amines is near about 107 degrees.

6.

Physical Properties of Amines

7.

Chemical Reactions of Amines

The difference in electronegativity of hydrogen and nitrogen atom and the presence of a lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom makes the amine reactive. The number of hydrogen atoms attached to nitrogen determines the course of action for the amine. This is the reason why primary, secondary and tertiary amines undergo different reactions. Amines behave like nucleophiles due to the presence of unshared electrons. Following are the reactions of amines:

  1. Basicity of amines:
    Being basic in nature, they react with acids to form salts.

Acylation:

Aliphatic and aromatic, primary and secondary amines react with acid chlorides, anhydrides and esters by the process of nucleophilic substitution reaction. This is known as acylation. Amides are the end products of acylation. The reactions are carried out in the presence of a stronger base as compared to amines. For example Pyridine. To remove the HCl formed during the reaction, equilibrium moves to the right-hand side.

8.

Introduction to Diazonium Salts

9.

Preparation of Diazonium Salts

10.

Physical Properties of Diazonium Salts

11.

Chemical Reactions of Diazonium Salts

12.

Importance of Diazonium Salts



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Few Important Questions

  • What are ‘Halides’?

Halides are chemical compounds that contain halogens. Halides are present in nature with some (salts and acids) being essential to human life.

  • What are ‘Amoratic amines’?

An aromatic amine is an organic compound consisting of an aromatic ring attached to an amine.

  • What is the common name of ‘Aniline’?

The common name of ‘Aniline’ is aminobenzene.


Practice Questions

  1. Convert Ethanoic acid to methenamine and Propanoic acid to ethanoic acid

  2. How to identify primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. Writes the reactions involved.

  3. Is it possible to prepare aromatic primary amines by Gabriel phthalimide synthesis? Why?

  4. Which of the two has a higher boiling point primary amines or tertiary amines? Why?

  5. Which among the following is a strong base-

Aliphatic amines or aromatic amines? Explain with a valid reason.

  1. Explain Hofmann’s bromamide reaction.

  2. Distinguish between Methylamine and dimethylamine with a chemical test.